History

Those who do not remember the past are condemned to repeat it

The Innocents Abroad

Mark Twain

The Innocents Abroad first saw the light of day back in 1869. It's a travel book by none other than Mark Twain, one of the most cherished and loved American authors. It's worth mentioning that this book is one of the all-time best-sellers in the...

The Explorers: A Story of Fearless Outcasts, Blundering Geniuses, and Impossible Success

Martin Dugard

Unlock your inner explorer in this riveting account of one of history’s greatest adventures—and a study of the seven character traits all great explorers share. In 1856, two intrepid adventurers, Richard Francis Burton and John Hanning S...

Digital Gold: Bitcoin and the Inside Story of the Misfits and Millionaires Trying to Reinvent Money

Nathaniel Popper

The notion of a new currency, maintained by the computers of users around the world, has been the butt of many jokes, but that has not stopped it from growing into a technology worth billions of dollars, supported by the hordes of followers who have...

Hero of the Empire: The Boer War, a Daring Escape, and the Making of Winston Churchill

Candice Millard

Candice Millard is internationally known for writing gripping, revealing, historically correct biographies of world-famous people like Roosevelt and Garfield. And now she's back with Hero of the Empire, an exciting, riveting chronology of Churchill's...

CHRISTMAS ROSES

AMANDA CABOT

Celia, the main character of Christmas Roses, a certified bestseller by Amanda Cabot, is not really expecting any miracles from Christmas. All she wants is a couple more boarders, and they are a rare "commodity" in her tiny mining town. And the one t...

THE MITFORD BEDSIDE COMPANION

JAN KARON

In case you didn't know, Jan Karon, the woman behind the ground-breaking Mitford series, has sold almost as much as 40 (!) million copies of her books and CDs, which makes her one of the bestselling authors of our time. Now, a lot of us really love t...

DEMOCRACY: STORIES FROM THE LONG ROAD TO FREEDOM

CONDOLEEZZA RICE

Condoleezza Rice, one of the most prominent and popular politicians of the 21st century, knows first-hand what it means to fight for democracy in this ever-changing and ever-frightening world. She used to be the secretary of state and is now ready to...

Whoops! There was an error.
ErrorException (E_WARNING)
file_put_contents(): Only 0 of 190 bytes written, possibly out of free disk space ErrorException thrown with message "file_put_contents(): Only 0 of 190 bytes written, possibly out of free disk space" Stacktrace: #7 ErrorException in /var/www/html/r80s/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Filesystem/Filesystem.php:122 #6 file_put_contents in /var/www/html/r80s/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Filesystem/Filesystem.php:122 #5 Illuminate\Filesystem\Filesystem:put in /var/www/html/r80s/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Session/FileSessionHandler.php:83 #4 Illuminate\Session\FileSessionHandler:write in /var/www/html/r80s/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Session/Store.php:128 #3 Illuminate\Session\Store:save in /var/www/html/r80s/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Session/Middleware/StartSession.php:87 #2 Illuminate\Session\Middleware\StartSession:terminate in /var/www/html/r80s/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Foundation/Http/Kernel.php:218 #1 Illuminate\Foundation\Http\Kernel:terminateMiddleware in /var/www/html/r80s/vendor/laravel/framework/src/Illuminate/Foundation/Http/Kernel.php:189 #0 Illuminate\Foundation\Http\Kernel:terminate in /var/www/html/r80s/public/index.php:60
7
ErrorException
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Filesystem
/
Filesystem.php
122
6
file_put_contents
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Filesystem
/
Filesystem.php
122
5
Illuminate
\
Filesystem
\
Filesystem
put
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Session
/
FileSessionHandler.php
83
4
Illuminate
\
Session
\
FileSessionHandler
write
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Session
/
Store.php
128
3
Illuminate
\
Session
\
Store
save
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Session
/
Middleware
/
StartSession.php
87
2
Illuminate
\
Session
\
Middleware
\
StartSession
terminate
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Foundation
/
Http
/
Kernel.php
218
1
Illuminate
\
Foundation
\
Http
\
Kernel
terminateMiddleware
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Foundation
/
Http
/
Kernel.php
189
0
Illuminate
\
Foundation
\
Http
\
Kernel
terminate
/
public
/
index.php
60
/
var
/
www
/
html
/
r80s
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Filesystem
/
Filesystem.php
     *
     * @param  string  $path
     * @return string
     */
    public function hash($path)
    {
        return md5_file($path);
    }
 
    /**
     * Write the contents of a file.
     *
     * @param  string  $path
     * @param  string  $contents
     * @param  bool  $lock
     * @return int
     */
    public function put($path, $contents, $lock = false)
    {
        return file_put_contents($path, $contents, $lock ? LOCK_EX : 0);
    }
 
    /**
     * Prepend to a file.
     *
     * @param  string  $path
     * @param  string  $data
     * @return int
     */
    public function prepend($path, $data)
    {
        if ($this->exists($path)) {
            return $this->put($path, $data.$this->get($path));
        }
 
        return $this->put($path, $data);
    }
 
    /**
     * Append to a file.
Arguments
  1. "file_put_contents(): Only 0 of 190 bytes written, possibly out of free disk space"
    
/
var
/
www
/
html
/
r80s
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Filesystem
/
Filesystem.php
     *
     * @param  string  $path
     * @return string
     */
    public function hash($path)
    {
        return md5_file($path);
    }
 
    /**
     * Write the contents of a file.
     *
     * @param  string  $path
     * @param  string  $contents
     * @param  bool  $lock
     * @return int
     */
    public function put($path, $contents, $lock = false)
    {
        return file_put_contents($path, $contents, $lock ? LOCK_EX : 0);
    }
 
    /**
     * Prepend to a file.
     *
     * @param  string  $path
     * @param  string  $data
     * @return int
     */
    public function prepend($path, $data)
    {
        if ($this->exists($path)) {
            return $this->put($path, $data.$this->get($path));
        }
 
        return $this->put($path, $data);
    }
 
    /**
     * Append to a file.
Arguments
  1. "/var/www/html/r80s/storage/framework/sessions/Me7CK5VXd6fQhh0OAgCxgTbhbbUSKUgzpMI8LxUI"
    
  2. "a:3:{s:6:"_token";s:40:"sGyD7pjrWU4zjqDN6fKT0xmyB1dpjnhw6qeIdN96";s:9:"_previous";a:1:{s:3:"url";s:32:"http://r80s.com/category/history";}s:6:"_flash";a:2:{s:3:"old";a:0:{}s:3:"new";a:0:{}}}"
    
  3. 2
    
/
var
/
www
/
html
/
r80s
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Session
/
FileSessionHandler.php
    /**
     * {@inheritdoc}
     */
    public function read($sessionId)
    {
        if ($this->files->exists($path = $this->path.'/'.$sessionId)) {
            if (filemtime($path) >= Carbon::now()->subMinutes($this->minutes)->getTimestamp()) {
                return $this->files->get($path, true);
            }
        }
 
        return '';
    }
 
    /**
     * {@inheritdoc}
     */
    public function write($sessionId, $data)
    {
        $this->files->put($this->path.'/'.$sessionId, $data, true);
 
        return true;
    }
 
    /**
     * {@inheritdoc}
     */
    public function destroy($sessionId)
    {
        $this->files->delete($this->path.'/'.$sessionId);
 
        return true;
    }
 
    /**
     * {@inheritdoc}
     */
    public function gc($lifetime)
    {
        $files = Finder::create()
Arguments
  1. "/var/www/html/r80s/storage/framework/sessions/Me7CK5VXd6fQhh0OAgCxgTbhbbUSKUgzpMI8LxUI"
    
  2. "a:3:{s:6:"_token";s:40:"sGyD7pjrWU4zjqDN6fKT0xmyB1dpjnhw6qeIdN96";s:9:"_previous";a:1:{s:3:"url";s:32:"http://r80s.com/category/history";}s:6:"_flash";a:2:{s:3:"old";a:0:{}s:3:"new";a:0:{}}}"
    
  3. true
    
/
var
/
www
/
html
/
r80s
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Session
/
Store.php
     *
     * @param  string  $data
     * @return string
     */
    protected function prepareForUnserialize($data)
    {
        return $data;
    }
 
    /**
     * Save the session data to storage.
     *
     * @return bool
     */
    public function save()
    {
        $this->ageFlashData();
 
        $this->handler->write($this->getId(), $this->prepareForStorage(
            serialize($this->attributes)
        ));
 
        $this->started = false;
    }
 
    /**
     * Prepare the serialized session data for storage.
     *
     * @param  string  $data
     * @return string
     */
    protected function prepareForStorage($data)
    {
        return $data;
    }
 
    /**
     * Age the flash data for the session.
     *
     * @return void
Arguments
  1. "Me7CK5VXd6fQhh0OAgCxgTbhbbUSKUgzpMI8LxUI"
    
  2. "a:3:{s:6:"_token";s:40:"sGyD7pjrWU4zjqDN6fKT0xmyB1dpjnhw6qeIdN96";s:9:"_previous";a:1:{s:3:"url";s:32:"http://r80s.com/category/history";}s:6:"_flash";a:2:{s:3:"old";a:0:{}s:3:"new";a:0:{}}}"
    
/
var
/
www
/
html
/
r80s
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Session
/
Middleware
/
StartSession.php
        if ($this->sessionConfigured()) {
            $this->storeCurrentUrl($request, $session);
 
            $this->addCookieToResponse($response, $session);
        }
 
        return $response;
    }
 
    /**
     * Perform any final actions for the request lifecycle.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @param  \Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response  $response
     * @return void
     */
    public function terminate($request, $response)
    {
        if ($this->sessionHandled && $this->sessionConfigured() && ! $this->usingCookieSessions()) {
            $this->manager->driver()->save();
        }
    }
 
    /**
     * Start the session for the given request.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @return \Illuminate\Contracts\Session\Session
     */
    protected function startSession(Request $request)
    {
        return tap($this->getSession($request), function ($session) use ($request) {
            $session->setRequestOnHandler($request);
 
            $session->start();
        });
    }
 
    /**
     * Get the session implementation from the manager.
/
var
/
www
/
html
/
r80s
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Foundation
/
Http
/
Kernel.php
     * @return void
     */
    protected function terminateMiddleware($request, $response)
    {
        $middlewares = $this->app->shouldSkipMiddleware() ? [] : array_merge(
            $this->gatherRouteMiddleware($request),
            $this->middleware
        );
 
        foreach ($middlewares as $middleware) {
            if (! is_string($middleware)) {
                continue;
            }
 
            list($name) = $this->parseMiddleware($middleware);
 
            $instance = $this->app->make($name);
 
            if (method_exists($instance, 'terminate')) {
                $instance->terminate($request, $response);
            }
        }
    }
 
    /**
     * Gather the route middleware for the given request.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @return array
     */
    protected function gatherRouteMiddleware($request)
    {
        if ($route = $request->route()) {
            return $this->router->gatherRouteMiddleware($route);
        }
 
        return [];
    }
 
    /**
Arguments
  1. Request {
      #json: null
      #convertedFiles: []
      #userResolver: Closure {
        class: "Illuminate\Auth\AuthServiceProvider"
        this: AuthServiceProvider { …}
        parameters: {
          $guard: {
            default: null
          }
        }
        use: {
          $app: Application { …}
        }
      }
      #routeResolver: Closure {
        class: "Illuminate\Routing\Router"
        this: Router { …}
        use: {
          $route: Route { …}
        }
      }
      +attributes: ParameterBag {}
      +request: ParameterBag {#1}
      +query: ParameterBag {#1}
      +server: ServerBag {}
      +files: FileBag {}
      +cookies: ParameterBag {}
      +headers: HeaderBag {}
      #content: null
      #languages: null
      #charsets: null
      #encodings: null
      #acceptableContentTypes: array:4 [
        0 => "text/html"
        1 => "application/xhtml+xml"
        2 => "application/xml"
        3 => "*/*"
      ]
      #pathInfo: "/category/history"
      #requestUri: "/category/history"
      #baseUrl: ""
      #basePath: null
      #method: "GET"
      #format: null
      #session: Store {}
      #locale: null
      #defaultLocale: "en"
      -isHostValid: true
      -isForwardedValid: true
      basePath: ""
      format: "html"
    }
    
  2. Response {}
    
/
var
/
www
/
html
/
r80s
/
vendor
/
laravel
/
framework
/
src
/
Illuminate
/
Foundation
/
Http
/
Kernel.php
     */
    protected function dispatchToRouter()
    {
        return function ($request) {
            $this->app->instance('request', $request);
 
            return $this->router->dispatch($request);
        };
    }
 
    /**
     * Call the terminate method on any terminable middleware.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Response  $response
     * @return void
     */
    public function terminate($request, $response)
    {
        $this->terminateMiddleware($request, $response);
 
        $this->app->terminate();
    }
 
    /**
     * Call the terminate method on any terminable middleware.
     *
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
     * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Response  $response
     * @return void
     */
    protected function terminateMiddleware($request, $response)
    {
        $middlewares = $this->app->shouldSkipMiddleware() ? [] : array_merge(
            $this->gatherRouteMiddleware($request),
            $this->middleware
        );
 
        foreach ($middlewares as $middleware) {
            if (! is_string($middleware)) {
Arguments
  1. Request {
      #json: null
      #convertedFiles: []
      #userResolver: Closure {
        class: "Illuminate\Auth\AuthServiceProvider"
        this: AuthServiceProvider { …}
        parameters: {
          $guard: {
            default: null
          }
        }
        use: {
          $app: Application { …}
        }
      }
      #routeResolver: Closure {
        class: "Illuminate\Routing\Router"
        this: Router { …}
        use: {
          $route: Route { …}
        }
      }
      +attributes: ParameterBag {}
      +request: ParameterBag {#1}
      +query: ParameterBag {#1}
      +server: ServerBag {}
      +files: FileBag {}
      +cookies: ParameterBag {}
      +headers: HeaderBag {}
      #content: null
      #languages: null
      #charsets: null
      #encodings: null
      #acceptableContentTypes: array:4 [
        0 => "text/html"
        1 => "application/xhtml+xml"
        2 => "application/xml"
        3 => "*/*"
      ]
      #pathInfo: "/category/history"
      #requestUri: "/category/history"
      #baseUrl: ""
      #basePath: null
      #method: "GET"
      #format: null
      #session: Store {}
      #locale: null
      #defaultLocale: "en"
      -isHostValid: true
      -isForwardedValid: true
      basePath: ""
      format: "html"
    }
    
  2. Response {}
    
/
var
/
www
/
html
/
r80s
/
public
/
index.php
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------
| Run The Application
|--------------------------------------------------------------------------
|
| Once we have the application, we can handle the incoming request
| through the kernel, and send the associated response back to
| the client's browser allowing them to enjoy the creative
| and wonderful application we have prepared for them.
|
*/
 
$kernel = $app->make(Illuminate\Contracts\Http\Kernel::class);
 
$response = $kernel->handle(
    $request = Illuminate\Http\Request::capture()
);
 
$response->send();
 
$kernel->terminate($request, $response);
 
Arguments
  1. Request {
      #json: null
      #convertedFiles: []
      #userResolver: Closure {
        class: "Illuminate\Auth\AuthServiceProvider"
        this: AuthServiceProvider { …}
        parameters: {
          $guard: {
            default: null
          }
        }
        use: {
          $app: Application { …}
        }
      }
      #routeResolver: Closure {
        class: "Illuminate\Routing\Router"
        this: Router { …}
        use: {
          $route: Route { …}
        }
      }
      +attributes: ParameterBag {}
      +request: ParameterBag {#1}
      +query: ParameterBag {#1}
      +server: ServerBag {}
      +files: FileBag {}
      +cookies: ParameterBag {}
      +headers: HeaderBag {}
      #content: null
      #languages: null
      #charsets: null
      #encodings: null
      #acceptableContentTypes: array:4 [
        0 => "text/html"
        1 => "application/xhtml+xml"
        2 => "application/xml"
        3 => "*/*"
      ]
      #pathInfo: "/category/history"
      #requestUri: "/category/history"
      #baseUrl: ""
      #basePath: null
      #method: "GET"
      #format: null
      #session: Store {}
      #locale: null
      #defaultLocale: "en"
      -isHostValid: true
      -isForwardedValid: true
      basePath: ""
      format: "html"
    }
    
  2. Response {}
    

Environment & details:

empty
empty
empty
empty
empty
Key Value
REDIRECT_PATH
"/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin"
REDIRECT_STATUS
"200"
PATH
"/usr/local/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin:/sbin:/bin"
HTTP_HOST
"r80s.com"
HTTP_ACCEPT_ENCODING
"x-gzip, gzip, deflate"
HTTP_USER_AGENT
"CCBot/2.0 (http://commoncrawl.org/faq/)"
HTTP_ACCEPT
"text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,*/*;q=0.8"
SERVER_SIGNATURE
"<address>Apache/2.4.10 (Debian) Server at r80s.com Port 80</address>\n"
SERVER_SOFTWARE
"Apache/2.4.10 (Debian)"
SERVER_NAME
"r80s.com"
SERVER_ADDR
"192.210.206.3"
SERVER_PORT
"80"
REMOTE_ADDR
"54.226.179.247"
DOCUMENT_ROOT
"/var/www/html/r80s/public"
REQUEST_SCHEME
"http"
CONTEXT_PREFIX
""
CONTEXT_DOCUMENT_ROOT
"/var/www/html/r80s/public"
SERVER_ADMIN
"admin@example.com"
SCRIPT_FILENAME
"/var/www/html/r80s/public/index.php"
REMOTE_PORT
"58146"
REDIRECT_URL
"/category/history"
GATEWAY_INTERFACE
"CGI/1.1"
SERVER_PROTOCOL
"HTTP/1.0"
REQUEST_METHOD
"GET"
QUERY_STRING
""
REQUEST_URI
"/category/history"
SCRIPT_NAME
"/index.php"
PHP_SELF
"/index.php"
REQUEST_TIME_FLOAT
1516454003.633
REQUEST_TIME
1516454003
APP_NAME
"Laravel"
APP_ENV
"local"
APP_KEY
"base64:2rULIz7E7b+m5x15vNu9GWPpasPW6jjAzA0hePMWOWc="
APP_DEBUG
"true"
APP_LOG_LEVEL
"debug"
APP_URL
"http://r80s.com"
DB_CONNECTION
"mysql"
DB_HOST
"127.0.0.1"
DB_PORT
"3306"
DB_DATABASE
"epub"
DB_USERNAME
"epub"
DB_PASSWORD
"nemesis-567"
BROADCAST_DRIVER
"log"
CACHE_DRIVER
"file"
SESSION_DRIVER
"file"
QUEUE_DRIVER
"sync"
REDIS_HOST
"127.0.0.1"
REDIS_PASSWORD
"null"
REDIS_PORT
"6379"
MAIL_DRIVER
"smtp"
MAIL_HOST
"smtp.mailtrap.io"
MAIL_PORT
"2525"
MAIL_USERNAME
"null"
MAIL_PASSWORD
"null"
MAIL_ENCRYPTION
"null"
PUSHER_APP_ID
""
PUSHER_APP_KEY
""
PUSHER_APP_SECRET
""
Key Value
APP_NAME
"Laravel"
APP_ENV
"local"
APP_KEY
"base64:2rULIz7E7b+m5x15vNu9GWPpasPW6jjAzA0hePMWOWc="
APP_DEBUG
"true"
APP_LOG_LEVEL
"debug"
APP_URL
"http://r80s.com"
DB_CONNECTION
"mysql"
DB_HOST
"127.0.0.1"
DB_PORT
"3306"
DB_DATABASE
"epub"
DB_USERNAME
"epub"
DB_PASSWORD
"nemesis-567"
BROADCAST_DRIVER
"log"
CACHE_DRIVER
"file"
SESSION_DRIVER
"file"
QUEUE_DRIVER
"sync"
REDIS_HOST
"127.0.0.1"
REDIS_PASSWORD
"null"
REDIS_PORT
"6379"
MAIL_DRIVER
"smtp"
MAIL_HOST
"smtp.mailtrap.io"
MAIL_PORT
"2525"
MAIL_USERNAME
"null"
MAIL_PASSWORD
"null"
MAIL_ENCRYPTION
"null"
PUSHER_APP_ID
""
PUSHER_APP_KEY
""
PUSHER_APP_SECRET
""
0. Whoops\Handler\PrettyPageHandler